Электронная библиотека.

Цифровые книги, справочники, словари.

Контрольная по английскому № 1. Вариант 4.

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I. Выберите правильный вариант видовременной формы глагола, перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, указав, в какой видовременной форме находится выбранный вами глагол. Example: The engineer … to test the device. a) was asked; b) have been asked; c) are asking; d) has asked. The engineer was asked to test the device. – Инженера попросили испытать механизм. (Past Simple, Passive Voice) 1. The first digital disks … in 1982 as compact disks for music. a) were produce; b) are produced; c) were produced; d) were been produced. 2. Satellite transmission … for international telegraphy. a) is now widely used; b) have now widely used; c) is now widely using; d) is now been used widely. 3. When the conditions for fusion …, the energy released appears as intense ultraviolet radiation which heats up the surface of the reactor wall. a) have been met; b) have met; c) are been met; d) were been met. 4. The intensity of a laser … to encode very complex signals. a) change; b) is rapidly changed; c) have rapidly changed; d) will rapidly be changing. II. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, выделив указательные местоимения-многофункциональны еслова. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык. Example: We know that a computer is a complex electronic device. – Мы знаем, что вычислительная машина является сложным электронным устройством. 1. That new mechanism could control many operations. 2. Telecommunications embraces all devices and systems that transmit electronic signals across long distances. 3. Two of these elements, germanium and silicon, are especially important. 4. Each hole will behave in a manner similar to that of an electron. III. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, обращая внимание на выделенное местоимение it . Переведите предложения на русский язык, указав функцию it в предложении. Example: We find it necessary to repeat the experiment. (формальное дополнение) – Мы считаем необходимым повторить этот эксперимент. 1. The essential characteristic of a robot is that it can be programmed. 2. It is evident that a robot must imitate the manual actions of human beings. 3. Vacuum tubes make it possible to convert part of their output in visible light. 4. It was Mendeleyev who formulated the periodic law. 5. It is the most interesting article on this subject. IV. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, обращая внимание на выделенные слова ones, one, переведите предложения на русский язык. Example: One should be very careful. – Нужно быть очень осторожным. 1. One of the most interesting uses of laser is in the world of newspapers. 2. One can associate the term “robot” with the manipulator. 3. Nowadays, many people have a mobile phone, but I’ve never used one. 4. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with traditional ones. V. Перепишите предложения, употребив глаголы в правильной видовременной форме, переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на функции глаголов to have, to do, to be в предложениях. Example: This material (to have) many valuable qualities. – This material has many valuable qualities. – Этот материал имеет много ценных свойств. 1. Computer integrated telephony, for example, (to have) great applications for telephone banking. 2. All of this work (to have) to be done before the end of the day. 3. The form of energy most required by us (to be) mechanical energy. 4. The professor (to be) to make a report at the conference. 5. The pressure changed, so (to do) the temperature. 6. I think, David (to do) something to the computer. I can’t get it to work. VI. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните инфинитив. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Example: To solve the problem is very important. Решить эту проблему – очень важно. 1. This method is accurate enough to give reliable results. 2. He can complete all the necessary measurements himself. 3. The idea to use this new substance didn’t leave us.

Работа над текстом I. Read the text. Then read the titles. Which of the following titles is the best? 1.Portable Computers. 2.Desktop Computers. 3.Clipboard Computers. 4.Mainframe Computers. II.Read the text again. Choose the best sentence from the list below to complete each gap. 1. For the last generation, Silicon Valley and Tokyo have been working to design computers that are ever easier to use. There is one thing, however, that has prevented the machines from becoming their user friendliest: you still have to input data with a keyboard, and that can require you to do a lot of typing and to memorize a lot of elaborate commands. 2. Enter the clipboard computer, a technology that has been in development for the last 20 years but took hold in the mass market only this year. Clipboard PCs –which, as their name suggests, are not much bigger than an actual clipboard — replace the keyboard with a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and an electronic stylus. 1 . 3. There are two technologies at work in a clipboard PC: one allows raw data to get into the computer and the other allows the computer to figure out what that data means. The first technology relies principally on hardware and varies depending on the particular computer. In one system, marketed under the name GRID Pad, the computer’s LCD screen is covered by a sheet of glass with a transparent conductive coating. Voltages are sent across the glass in horizontal and vertical lines forming a fine grid; at any point on the grid, the voltage is slightly different. When the stylus — which is essentially a voltmeter — touches the screen, it informs the computer of the voltage at that point. 2 . The position of the stylus is monitored several hundred times a second, so as the stylus moves across the glass, whole strings of pixels are activated. 4. Making that writing comprehensible to the computer, however, requires the help of some powerful software. When the stylus is being used, the computer is programmed to look for moments when the tip does not touch the screen for a third of a second or more. 3. The pixel positions of this fresh character are then passed on to the computer’s pattern recognition software, which instantly identifies the letter or number written. 5. The software does this by first cleaning up the character — smoothing out crooked lines and removing errant dots. 4 . When the computer finds the closest match, it encodes the character in memory and displays it on the screen as if it had been typed. 5 . To move to the next page, you flick the stylus at the bottom of the screen as if you’re flicking the page of a book. a)The computer uses this information to determine where the stylus is and causes a liquid crystal pixel to appear at those coordinates. b)The remaining lines and curves are then compared with a series of templates in the computer’s memory that represent hundreds of thousands of different versions of every letter in the English alphabet and all ten numerals. c)Users input data by printing individual letters directly on the screen. d)To delete a word, you simply draw a line through it. e)Every time this happens the software assumes that one letter or number has been written. III.Choose the best answer to these questions according to the text. How big is a clipboard PC? a)It is smaller than an actual clipboard. b)It is not much bigger than an actual desktop computer. c)It is not much bigger than an actual clipboard. 1.How does the computer know when one letter or number is complete? a)The software decides that one character or number is complete if the tip of the stylus is not in contact with the screen for more than half a second. b)The computer is programmed to look for moments when the tip does not touch the screen for a third of a second or more. c)The computer gives a user one second for each letter or number. 2.How can you delete a word after you have written it?

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