Задание I. Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст устно.
The English Political Heritage
During the 160 Qs people from many regions, such as Spain, the Netherlands, France, Sweden, Norway and West Africa, settled in North America. Most colonists, however, came from England. It was the English who established and governed the original thirteen colonies along the Atlantic coast.
The English colonists brought with them ideas about government that had been developing in England for centuries. By the 1600s English government offered its citizens political liberties, such as trial by jury, that were largely unknown elsewhere. At the heart of the English system were two principles of government. These principles - limited government and representative government - greatly influenced the development of the United States.
By the time the first colonists reached North America, the idea that government was not all-powerful had become an accepted part of the English system. The idea first appeared in the Magna Carta*, or Great Charter, that King John signed in 1215. The Magna Carta established the principle of limited government, in which the power of the monarch, or government, was limited, not absolute. This document provided for protection against unjust punishment and the loss of life, liberty, and property except according to law. Under the Magna Carta. the king agreed that certain taxes could not be levied without popular consent.
The rights in the Magna Carta originally applied only to the nobility. During the next few centuries, however, other groups won political liberties primarily through agreements between English monarchs and the nobility and merchants.
Упражнение 2. Выпишите из текста эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:
В течение -17 века; из многих стран и областей; Великая Хартия Вольностей; английские поселенцы; к началу 17 века; государственная система; ограничение власти; представительная (выборная) власть; эта мысль, в соответствии с Великой Хартией Вольностей; без согласия народа; дворянство и купечество; король Иоанн; несправедливое наказание; свобода и собственность; именно англичане основали.
Упражнение 3. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту:
1. When did people from many regions such as Spain, the Netherlands, France, Sweden, Norway and West Africa settle in North America?
2. What political principles were brought by the colonists to America?
3. What provisions did the Magna Carta contain?
4. Who enjoyed the rights given by the Magna Carta?
Выполните письменно следующие грамматические упражнения:
Упражнение 1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол-сказуемое в нужной видовременной форме:
1. Не (to work) at the procurator´s office next year.
2. She (to be to work) at the Notary office last year.
3. Our lawyers (to work) at the agreement at the moment.
4. They (to know) a great deal about our judicial system.
5. A group of American lawyers (to visit) our Academy a year ago.
6. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales (to be) the House of Lords.
7. We (to have) tutorials last week.
8. There (to be) a Notary Office in our street last year.
9. We already (to hear) this interesting news.
10. They (to sign) a number of important documents in Helsinki by September.
11 . New Constitution (to come into force) by next October.
12. The purposes of the United Nations (to be) to maintain international peace and security.
13. 1 (to prepare) for the next seminar all day long tomorrow.
14. They (to discuss) this important question for two hours yesterday.
15. A young judge (not to pass) a sentence yet.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. Завтра будет интересная лекция по праву.
2. Сегодня в отделе я видел своего друга.
3. Он никогда не был в Верховном Суде. Он не знает, как туда добраться.
4. Они сейчас сдают экзамен по криминологии.
5. Они обсуждали этот вопрос по п
6. Он работал в нотариальной конторе, до того как поступил в юридический институт.
7. Вы должны посетить эти лекции по праву.
8. Он будет судьей через два года.
9. Они прочитают это дело завтра к двум часам.
10. Парламент в России состоит из двух палат.
Упражнение 3. Задайте вопросы к подчеркнутым членам предложения.
1. Law students have their practice in law offices.
2. They hold a scientific conference every year.
3. Our former graduates took part in our conference.
4. The participants of the conference are discussing some problems of criminalities now.
5. The students of our department have already had their practice in law offices.
6. This outstanding scientist has collected a lot of facts to develop his theory.
7. He had passed his entrance exams by August.
8. They are the students of our Law Department.
9. He was a sophomore last year.
10. The English colonists will bring with them ideas about government.
Составьте рассказ о себе, ответив на следующие вопросы:
1. What is your name?
2. What is your surname?
3. How old are you?
4. What country are you from?
5. Where do you live?
6. Where do you study?
7. What faculty (department) do you study at?
8. What course are you in?
9. What is your address?
10. What is your telephone number?
11. Is your family large or small?
12. Do you have a family of your own?
13. Are you married?
14. Do you have many friends in your group?
15. How are you getting along?
Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.
The Court System of England and Wales
The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates´ court. There are 700 magistrates´ courts and about 30,000 magistrates.
More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County courts.
Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates´ courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. The highest court of appeal in England and Wales is the House of Lords. (Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals from Scottish courts.) Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of areas as a result of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights.
The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners´ courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and governments (for example, over taxation).